AH1A Howland Island Team Manual

AH1A Operators Manual

24-DEC-92                  KH1/93  ----  Operator's  Manual              

DXpedition to Howland Island  

INTRODUCTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                1

ITINERARY   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          1

TRAVEL INFORMATION   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       1

Jim Smith's Article from QRZ DX 1987       . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2

Chod Harris Article for CQ Magazine . . . . . . . . . . .                3

Weather conditions by F&WS     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3

Boat Information - 67 ft Schooner "Machias"       . . . . . . . . . . .4

Legal Authority  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  4

Ecosystem - Prohibited  Items  - Conditions of  Use Permit  . . .5

OPERATING INFORMATION     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5

Callsign  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       6

Operator Guidelines   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...             6

Frequencies . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              9

Station Design   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        :  . .  .          11

Beam Headings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                13

Polar Chart - appendix    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             13

QSL info  ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      13

Computer and Software Info     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        13

Maritime Mobile Operation    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        14

PROMOTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

Sponsors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     14

Sponsor Guidelines    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              15

Video/Slide show    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      . .  . . . . . .          15

PERSONAL ITEMS   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               16

Checklist from Captain Austin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           16

Money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     16

Recommended Clothing    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         16

Shoes . . . . . . . . . . .                                                               17

Medical . . .                                                                            17

Sun protection suggestions . . . . . . .                                        17

A note on hearing loss     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               18

Flashlights  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      18

Swimming gear  . . . . . . . . . .                                    .              18

Equipment and Radios    . . . . . .                                              18

Things not to bring   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   18

ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES     . . . . . . .                                          19

 Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                       19

 Passports and Visas   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .                19

 Landing Permit   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .                  19

  Safety  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          . . .               20

 Travel and Lodging    . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     20

 Personal Purchases    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               20

FINANCE AND BUDGET.                                                        . .   20

 Budget  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                 20

OPERATOR LISTING   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .. . .               20

APPENDIX   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          22

Copyright© 1992 Walt Stinson, W0CP

24-DEC-92 KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual page 1

DXpedition to Howland Island


The KHI'93 DXpedtion was conceived by K9AJ and W0RLX. Their interest in this DXCC spot was timely, indeed. KHI was just ranked Europe 's second most needed country by "The DX Magazine." The increased interest in KHI has created both problems and opportunities for us. There is more support than we could otherwise have expected, and there is more pressure on  us to do a first class job.

As a member of the KHI team, you are about to embark on one of the top DXpeditions of the decade, and one of the most exciting adventures of your life. Our goal is to set a new standard in organization, operating excellence, and signal strength. We want nothing less than to remove Howland/Baker from the ranks of the most needed. We have all trained many years for this moment. Many of us have direct experience on DXpeditions to other rare DXCC countries. Our challenge is to come together as a team and make the best of this magnificent opportunity.

This Manual will answer some of the questions relating to operating and personal issues. It is not intended to be all inclusive, but, hopefully, we haven't left out too much.

Please look it over carefully. If you notice anything else that needs to be addressed, please bring it to the attention of the organizers.


                                    December 12-18, 1992               K9AJ and WORLX will be in Hawaii to make final arrangements and load gear onto the ship "Machias."

January 5, 1993             Last date that equipment shipped to Hawaii can be loaded on the ship in Hawaii .

January 16                    Team meets in Honolulu .

January 19                    Team flies to Christmas Island (T32) to meet the ship.

January 26                    Anticipated first day of seven day operation

February 3                   Last day of operation February 8 Arrival in Tarawa

February 9                   Fly to Honolulu (cross date line-gain one day)

February 8                   Arrive Honolulu

February 22                 Ship Machias returns with equipment to Honolulu from Tarawa

24-DEC-92              KH1/93 ---- operator's Manual                   page 2


Information from Jim Smith's Article from ORZ DX 1987

Baker and Howland Islands , by Jim Smith VK9NS (edited for conciseness)

Baker and Howland Islands lie a few minutes north of the Equator at longitude 176 degrees West. They are north of the Phoenix group and about 1650 miles southwest of Honolulu.

These days the islands are uninhabited, but are visited on a fairly regular basis by personnel from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The islands provide a habitat for a large number of seabirds.

Howland Islands was discovered in 1822 by Captain Worth of the whaler OENO out of Nantucket . It originally bore the name Worth Island , but was renamed Howland Island (possibly after the sailor who first sighted it) some 20 years later when the whaler ISABELLA visited in September, 1842. The island is about 20 feet above sea level and one and a half miles long by half a mile wide.

Like many of these remote Pacific Islands , Howland has had a checkered career -- first claimed by the U.S. Guano Company in 1858. Then in 1895 the American Guano Company landed on Howland. For several years both companies hotly contested the right to dig for guano. It appears that American Guano won out in the end. Many tons of guano were then taken until late 1878 when the company representative, his wife, children, and 43 laborers left and returned to Honolulu .

It was further occupied from 1886 until 1891 by the John T. Arundel Company and with the aid of some 100 natives more guano was removed.

It was in March of 1935, however, that things really got going on Howland Island . American "colonists" arrived and a small settlement named Itascatown was built (named after the U.S. Coast Guard cutter which brought them to the island). The attempts of the settlers to establish themselves make interesting reading.

In 1937 an airfield was hurriedly constructed to handle a possible landing by Amelia Earhart on route from New Guinea to Oahu . As events later proved she and her navigator disappeared enroute. The beacon lighthouse on Howland Island was then named the "Amelia Earhart Light" in her honor.

Of course in the Pacific during WWII things were never quite the same again. on nearby Baker Island some 120 officers and 2000 men soon had a major airstrip built, an incredible 5750 feet long and 150 feet wide. This runway along with taxi ways, ammunition and fuel dumps, and other facilities took up most of the island. The runway was completed in early October 1943 and after being used briefly was evacuated in March 1944.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- operator's Manual                    page 3

In due course, the islands were left alone. However, a number of factors have kept interest in the islands alive. They harbor a unique group of birds and visits showed they were in serious trouble due to a strong feral cat population (courtesy of the former inhabitants). The cats had achieved one thing, they had eaten all the rats, and were turning more and more to birds for food. In addition, with the passing of the years many of the war time fuel drums were rusting through. As the fuel drained away, the birds started to use them as nesting sites. They often fell in and were trapped.

In recent years a massive cleanup operation has been undertaken. The sheer volume of hard work involved in dealing with hundreds of old fuel drums makes impressive reading. It is to the credit of these dedicated people that so much has now been achieved. The cat population has been drastically reduced and a real possibility of complete eradication exists.

In visiting these islands some 44 years after the evacuation of the military there will be much to search for. We are looking forward to this visit to one of the rarest areas of the Pacific and, of course, we hope that the propagation will allow many to hear and work us on Howland and possibly Baker also.

[QRZ editor's note: The HIDXA DXpedition will probably be the first amateur radio operation from either Baker or Howland since WWII. our request for information about these two islands yielded answers from Bob, K4PDV, who operated from Howland,island during 1940 as KF6SJJ and Jan, N6AW, who found the following cards in the W6AM QSL collection: K6BAZ (Howland Isl. 1938) and KF6PUL (Baker lsl. 1939).

Evidently, all post-World War II activity from the American Phoenix Islands was from Canton island (KB6 and KHI). Thanks to N6AW, K4PDV, N4SU, W5HTX, and K4FK for info.]


Chod Harris Article for CQ Magazine - appendix Weather conditions by F&WS

Only a limited number of weather observations have been made on Howland. However, the few existing records do indicate a fairly uniform climate with little seasonal

change except variation in amount of rainfall. Records of observations made during the 1935 to 1942 colonization and the 1943 to 1945 military occupation show Howland as having

a mean annual temperature of 83 degrees F with monthly means not more than I degree F above and below. Slight seasonal variations in temperature do occur with the warmest temperature in September (extreme mean maxima of 89 degrees recorded then) and the coolest in March (when the extreme

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                  page 4

mean maxima of 86 degrees were recorded; mean minima are always near 79 degrees F). Extremes recorded are 101 degrees and 71 degrees. Humidity readings are low generally but show a slight rise at night (from 55 to 86 percent relative humidity.)

The sea water temperature ranged between 86 and 87 degrees F during a four day period in October, 1963.

Howland is located in the south equatorial current zone where the currents are from east to west. Cloud cover is most frequently stratocumulus with maximum clouds occurring from November to May.

Information on precipitation is scant and inconclusive but available records do show the annual rainfall to be extremely variable. Sometimes more than a year may elapse with little or no rain at all, as in 1859-1860.


Boat Information - 67 ft Schooner "Machias"

Mailing address for items shipped to the boat:

Burt Myers/ Howland Island Trip

c/o Bob Farrow

4767 Farmers Road

Honolulu , HI 96816

Legal Authority

When we are aboard ship, the captain is the legal authority. He is responsible for our safety and welfare, and we are responsible to obey any legal directive from him. Please respect the ship and its crew and do your best to help, not hinder, its,mission.

When on Howland/Baker we are under the authority of the US government. Two scientists, Beth Flint and Dave Woodside, from the Fish and Wildlife Service will be accompanying us on our expedition. Dave Woodside is a veteran of many expeditions to remote islands, including AH3C/Jarvis.

The F&WS doesn't have the budget to travel to Howland and Baker as much as they would like, and are taking this opportunity to hitch-hike with us. They are there to observe the local bird population, not us. It is their job, however, to protect the wildlife and the environment of the island. Please be sensitive to this and do your best to avoid putting our mission in conflict with theirs. We must do our best to minimize the impact of our operation on the plants and wildlife of the island, and to leave the island in the same condition we found it. Please police yourself as we proceed, so that we do not have a major cleanup job at the end.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                  page 5

Ecosystem - Prohibited Items - Conditions of use Permit

 1. Camp and Antenna Placement

The site of camp and antenna placement will be determined by the F&W Service staff. Permittees will be restricted to the general area of the camp and a trail to and from the landing area unless approved by Service staff. Disturbance to wildlife and habitat will be minimized.

2. Authority of F&W Service to halt activity

The Service staff will have the power to halt any activity which they feel constitutes excessive

disturbance to the wildlife, the habitat, or the reef ecosystem.

3. Importation of Harmful Items

All clothing, gear and materials taken onto the island must be inspected and found free of foreign

plants, seeds, animals, and insects prior to entry onto the island. Fumigation with an insecticide should be

used on all non-sensitive gear. Tomato seeds, tomatoes, sunflower seeds, alfalfa seeds, and mustard seeds are specifically prohibited.

4. Fishing is Prohibited

Fishing from the island or within the limits of the Refuge boundary (three miles from the island) is prohibited. This includes the contract vessel.

8. Restoration of the Island

KHI'93 is responsible for removing all signs of their presence on the island. All equipment and debris should be removed.

9. Removal of Indigenous Material Is Prohibited

The taking of any animal, vegetable, or mineral matter, except as authorized by the Refuge Manager or representative, is prohibited. Disturbance to any wildlife, except as authorized by the Service staff, is also prohibited.

10. Fish and Wildlife Service Officer-in-charge

Beth Flint is the Wildlife Refuge's Officer-in-Charge during this expedition.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                    page 6



The callsign for the trip will be AH1A. This call will used only from the island. Operator calls will be used from the boat. We will use the AH1A callsign only for QSO's that qualify for Baker/Howland country credit in our official log, in order to avoid confusion. The organizers will announce the callsign at the appropriate time. Do not announce the call to the general public yourself, as we wish to minimize the possibility of pirates.

Operator Guidelines General

We have a commitment to our corporate and foundation sponsors to maintain the highest standards of personal and technical conduct. Previous expeditions have been marred when the operators, frustrated with unruly and uncooperative pile-ups, have lost their temper and threatened to pull the plug. There have also been instances of malicious interference, which has severely disrupted the operations and caused ill-will toward DXers in general and the expedition operators in specific. We want to avoid these situations. If you feel you are losing control over a pile-up, get another operator, QSY, or QRT. There will be lids, cops, and jammers. O ur job is to stay above the messes and not to get pulled into them. Our success or failure at doing this will be one of the primary measures that the DX community will use to judge the professionalism of our operation. Stay cool!

General Guidelines:

Do not ragchew or debate with anyone while running a pile use pilot stations to alert you to openings.

MHDXA has appointed certain stations to be "pilots." These stations will monitor the jamming, policing, rates, openings, etc. They will also keep tabs on European and east coast Dxer's so that we can get constructive criticism (or compliments) promptly. We will have a daily sked with the pilot coordinator, who will pass along input from the DX community.

Use the rf gain and attenuators to peel off the strongest stations

Announce the callsign every 3 minutes at minimum

Don't try to go too fast-adjust the speed of exchanges according to conditions. HA5BUS and Romeo have both received complaints of going too fast. Shouldn't be a problem when you are loud.

Be polite, it will help make to pile more polite, too.

Standby occasionally to listen for tough propagation paths.

24-DEC-92               KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                   page 7

Also, remember to take advantage of the grey line propagation twice each day. Don't be caught working USA or JA on the grey line, you can work them anytime. Use these opportunities to work the antipodal stations, as these are the two times each day that propagation will favor them. Low band stations should keep and eye on the DXedge and work the USA sunrise grey line on 160 and 80 meters by calling CQ as the line moves west. High band stations should use DXedge to monitor the grey line as it moves across Europe . Work USA only after the high bands have closed to Europe . Let the USA and JA stations know what you are doing and why, to gain their cooperation.

When working split, don't keep moving up the band - limit your spread. Set a pattern, so that the discerning operator will know where to call. one approach would be to move up the band for l0kHz or so, then come back down and start moving up again. If you keep moving up the band too far, you will inevitably cause QRM and disrupt QSO's, which would result in ill will toward our expedition or even retribution through jamming. Should you encounter excessive jamming or policing, move your transmit frequency down slightly. The policemen and jammers will be left bickering among themselves while the sharp operators will quickly find you on the new frequency. Use the least amount of spread necessary, especially on 20M!

if you use a call area strategy, be sensitive to propagation.

High band propagation (10, 15, and 20m) will remain open to the west coast about 3 hours longer than to the east. Work the west after the east coast propagation has closed. Watch the DXedge and follow the grey line starting with east coast call areas 1, 2, 3, and 4; then go to 5, 8, 9, and 0; then to 6 and 7. You can take these one at a time or in groups, depending on the size of the pile. Stay on the 1,2,3,and 4 group as long as propagation holds up, then move to the next group. Let the pile know what you are doing.

24-DEC-92                 KHI/93 ---- operator's Manual                    page 8

Do occasionally make announcements what other frequencies we are on.

When we will be on certain bands and modes where to send QSLs

What equipment we are using

How long we will be on the island

What our normal daily operating schedule is Nets

Do not run stations on nets! Checking into nets is permissible for the purpose of disseminating information about the expedition only.



Try to limit the qsx range to no more than 10khz

If the pile-diminishes, slow down a bit - not everyone can copy 40wpm

Send call and qsl info slower when possible

Use CT as much as possible for sending to reduce error resend the call, as shown below, if call is broken initially


Try to limit QSX to no more than 15khz of the band (good luck)

Never use more than 15khz of qsx on 20 meters (good luck agn)

Announce the qsl route every 15 minutes at minimum

Be friendly to the pile, make personal comments where possible

Do not give out cw qsols on ssb frequencies

Request full calls. do not request "last two letters." recommended ssb exchange when conditions are tough (his call at end) AHIA: ...... QRZ

Sample exchange:

K0EU: ...... K0EU

AHIA: ...... K0echo uniform FIVE NINE;



24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                   page 9

Digital, VHF, and Satellite RTTY

1. Be Patient. RTTY is a slow mode, especially with large pileups. The qso rate will be around 60 to 100 per hour. Not exactly a high rate of QSO'S, so be patient.

2. We must work RTTY split. This should really go without saying, since we are planning to work SSB and CW split. A recent rare operation tried to work them on his own frequency. His QSO rate was around 20 per hour. It was very difficult copy, with everyone calling on top of each other - an unbelievable mess!

3. Do not attempt other digital modes for DXing. Baudot RTTY (45 baud) is still the standard for

RTTY DXing. Good old standard Baudot is still the only digital mode used on DXpeditions. ASCII just never caught on and of course AMTOR would slow the rate way down since we would have to connect to each station first.

4. DXpedition operating frequencies. The standard seems to be around .080-.085, listening up 5. So, the DXpedition transmit frequencies should be 28.085, 21.085 and 14.085. Amtor is from 070-080, Baudot RTTY from 080-095 and Packet from 095-100.

5. Call areas vs free-style. Call areas don't work too well on RTTY. It just seems to slow down the QSO rate. However, if the pileups are too deep, you may have to go with it.

6. Try to keep to a standard RTTY operating time. This will keep both us and the RTTY community

happy. They will know when we will be operating   -on RTTY and we won't have as many people asking us on SSB and CW. Someone will know, if they miss us one day, we will be back on the same RTTY frequency the next day. People will become far less frustrated if they know our schedule.

7. Europe and USA East Coast propagation. KHI is no.2 in Europe and no.8 on the east coast. There are a large number of European RTTY DXers and we will be very popular an RTTY in Europe . It will be rough working Europe and East Coast due to their respective locations. Long path openings may be the best bet.

6 meter and satellite - we have a specialist with us. See him.

24-DEC-92                KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual               page 10


Authorized frequencies

Region 3 allocations

The allocations and band plans are the same as in the USA , except on 40m, as noted below. Note that 7100 to 7300 is NOT available to.,Pacific islands outside of region 2, including Baker and Howland.



7000-7100 (CW: 7.000-7.100; RY: 7.035-7.040; SSB 7.075-7.100)

14000-14350 21000-21450 28000-29700 10m- 28777 12m- 24983

USA sub-bands (SEE APPENDIX)

Announced operating frequencies:

10m- 28475 qsx 430-500 (USA novice op's cannot go above 28500)
12m- 24935   qsx  940-950
15m- 21295   qsx  300-310
17m- 18115   qsx  120-130
20m- 14195   qsx  200-210; (for USA general class, qsx 240-250)
40m- 7080    qsx  230-240; (+-QRM) Europe qsx UP
75m- 3795    qsx  3800-3810 (3635-3650 for restricted) European band edge is 3800,
so listen for Europe simplex at 3795 or, if you want to work split, listen down. Some coutries,
incl. USSR and Italy are restricted; see  appendix.
10m-  28023  qsx  up 3
12m-  24893  qsx  up
15m-  21023  qsx  up
17m-  18073  qsx  up
20m-  14023  qsx  up
30m-  10103  qsx  up
40m-    7023 qsx  up
80m-    3503 qsx  up
160m- 1833   qsx  up
10m-  28085  qsx up 5
12m-  24925  qsx up 5
15m-  21085  qsx up 5
17m-  18105  qsx up 5
20m-  14085  qsx up 5
40m-    7085 qsx up 5;  7040 (dx)

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                 page 11

Secret frequencies

These frequencies   are for family and friends only. Use your own callsign   (Foreign hams use a USA callsign). Regulations do not require you to sign portable KH1 (unless you are using a foreign callsign), so don't do it or you will spoil the usefulness of these frequencies.                                                      

15m- 21444; 17m- 18160; 20m- 14277

40m-   7080 QSX 7199

USA Novice/Tech frequencies

Hopefully, things will never slow down, but if they do, use the opportunity to work a few novices/techs. These are the entry level USA licensees. By working a few of these, we will be bringing the thrill of DXing to a new generation of hams.

SSB 28300-28500       CW 28100-28300; 21100-21200

7100-7150 (we cannot operate on this band)


6 meter beacons (SEE APPENDIX)

160m worldwide frequencies (SEE APPENDIX)

Station Design

One of the primary goals of the trip is to satisfy the demand for KHI in Europe and on the east coast. This ambitious goal has necessitated a more rigorous approach to station-design than might normally be required. After all, it doesn't take much station to work JA's and USA from KHI and those areas could keep us busy full time if our only objective was high rates.

To meet our goal, two objectives were set: to be loud, and to stretch the openings as long as possible with better antennas. To meet the first objective, the support of ETO, the maker of Alphals, was obtained. They agreed to loan us four of the new Alpha 89 amps. These amps will loaf along at 1500 watts output and, better yet, they have a very effective protection scheme that virtually assures us of reliable operation no matter how we goof up!

Meeting the second objective meant taking a fresh look at

our antenna needs. It was determined that we could improve upon our signal in three ways: using mono-band yagils on the HF bands, using phased verticals on 40m and 80m and,

finally, by paying special attention to the vertical RF ground systems, especially on 80m and 160m. You might

assume that, because we are near salt water, the ground system is of little concern. However, while there are definitely some advantages to being near the ocean, the island's soil is a very poor conductor and an extensive RF ground is required if reasonable efficiency is to be obtained.

24-DEC-92               KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                  page 12

We will have four HF station setup's, plus VHF and satellite. There will be two widely separated HF station sites, one primarily for SSB and one primarily for CW. We hope to be able to operate SSB and CW on the same band without serious interference problems. Of course, we will be operating from each of the locations on two different bands simultaneously. The problem of inter-station interference will be significantly reduced by the mono- banders, which will more effectively reject signals on other frequencies than the tri-banders that are typically used. We will also be using band-pass filters and tunable filters to further reduce inter-station interference.

Each station location will have two station positions, each with a fully filtered Kenwood transceiver (TS-850s or TS-450s) and an Alpha 89.

The SSB station will have an HF6V for 80-10 meters. It will also have mono-band yagis for 10, 15, and 20 meters on two separate masts, and a WARC band beam on a third mast. The CW station will also have mono-band yagis. We will also be installing a pair of phased Butternut HF2V verticals on 80m (with top loading) and another pair on 40m, which will give us 4dB of gain to Europe . An inverted L will also be installed for 160. The vertical ground system for each vertical will consist of several hundred square feet of chicken wire in a square, augmented by a 3ft square of aluminum at the base of each antenna. We also have a mile of magnet wire to lay out as radials for 80M and 160M - something to do in your spare time.

All station positions will have laptop computers for real-time logging. The computer at one of the CW positions will also be equipped for RTTY. We will be patching the Kenwoods into the computers, so that band tracking will occur automatically. Each station position will have a DXedge grey-line map, so you can keep track of the grey line despite your disorientation at being in a different part of the world! Special headphones have been customized that incorporate the Heil element and also cut out ambient noise muff-style phones. These stations should be a lot of fun to operate.

Power will be provided by 4-Yanmar diesel generators, each with over 3kw of power capability. One of our sponsors is Panamax, who will be providing line voltage protection for all of our sensitive equipment. Their sister company is providing our hi-tech water bottles.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- operator's Manual                 page 13

Beam Headings

Beam headings from KHI are displayed in the country window of CT. To access them, type in a prefix and then press "FIO". Listed below are the most common headings. Europe - zero degrees USA - 50 degrees

Japan - 317 degrees

Polar Chart - appendix OSL info --

QSL’S will be handled by the MileHiDx Association, a 100 member club based in Colorado .   A highly qualified team of volunteer DXers has been assembled to handle the QSLinq chores in a very efficient manner. The QSL route is: Mile High DX Association, POB 1, Franktown , CO 80116 , USA .

Due to the very strict QSL revenue accounting requirements imposed by NCDXF, no other QSL routes will be permitted, though we will attempt to reclaim cards that are misdirected to other routes. No copies of the logs will be distributed to operators and no confirmations except those by MHDXA are sanctioned.

Computer and Software Info

We have developed an excellent computer system for the expedition. Computers have been obtained for each operating position. We will use CT, by KIEA, as our logging program. Automatic hourly back-ups of our logs to floppy disk will occur on the hour. CT allows many logs to be merged

together into a master log, which will permit us to track our statistics in real-time.  We are breaking new ground with by using computers on a major equatorial DXpedition, but we feel that the technology is mature enough (both hardware and software), and there is enough experience (CT has been out 6 years) and expertise in our group (W0CP is an ex-IBMer, and K0EU is a software programmer) to make it

work. The environmental conditions are the big variable, but we have received assurances from dealers in the Pacific that our gear will work fine. We will have paper/pencil backup, just in case.

If you are unfamiliar with computer logging or CT, you will have an opportunity to receive training before we arrive at Howland. Many of you will be interested in your rates during the operation. CT has an "OPON" feature that tracks the operators for every QSO. See the appendix for more information.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                 page 14

Maritime Mobile operation

In international waters, the ship's registry determines the country has jurisdiction over any radio transmitting activity. The S/V Machias is of US registry, so the FCC rules and regulations will apply to any radio operations on board, when in international waters. A FCC license or reciprocal license is necessary for the station licensee and control operator. When in the territorial waters of a particular country, that country has jurisdiction of radio activities. It is necessary to have a license from that particular country in order for transmissions to be authorized. The only country we are visiting, other than the USA , is Kiribati . Arrangements are being made for a license from that country for at least one of the operators. The identification procedure in international waters is to sign your call sign followed by a slant bar (stroke), mm (maritime mobile), Region 3.

PROMOTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS                                                                                                        Sponsors

We have prepared a formal, spiral bound, presentation for helping to obtain the commitment of clubs, foundations, and commercial firms. It describes the trip in detail, including budget information. It was used for our successful formal requests of support from Alpha, Cushcraft, NCDXF, and others.

Equipment sponsors (as of December 12, 1992 ):
ETO/Alpha - 4 Alpha 89 amplifiers

Kenwood - 2-TS850, 3-TS450,filters; Cushcraft - 6 mono band beams Butternut - 4-HF2V, 1-HF6

Heil - headphones, mikes, and footswitches

Panamax - AC power conditioning equipment, surge voltage protection, water purification

Casio - timepieces

Oklahoma Comm Center (AH9B) –

Cushcraft A3-WS WARC beam

Bencher - one LogiKey

ICE - filters

W6EL MINI-PROP PLUS Propagation Software

WFIB RTTY Software

Club and Foundation Sponsors:

NCDXF - cash grant

MHDXA - qsl management

pending sponsors:


Clipperton DX Club

Chiltern DX Club


LADX Group


Danish DX Group EUDXF

More to come...

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                   page 15

Sponsor Guidelines

On-site considerations:

We are required to take a number of photos showing the operators with equipment banners and-, also, showing the equipment in use. While we will acknowledge their support, the sponsors have requested that we not discuss or acknowledge, on-the-air or otherwise, our promotional agreements. As for mentions of the equipment being used, the FCC prohibits on-the-air commercials announcements.- However, you are encouraged to discuss the details of our equipment setup in the course of your operations, as you normally would on SSB. A good time for this is when an operator change occurs.

Kenwood Photo Requirements (with prominent Kenwood banner)

1- Station operation

2- DXpedition members

3- Members in local geography

Heil Photo Requirements - headphones in use

Cushcraft Photo Requirements - banner, ops, beams Butternut - ops, verts

Panamax - ops, products in use

Alpha -  ops, products in use

Misc   op photo to sign as thank you mementos (like a ball team!) All vendors

Post trip publication guidelines

Several of our product sponsors have mentioned that they did not receive much recognition for their participation in previous DXpeditions. They were assured that we would try to do a better job. in publications, we can be blatantly commercial. It is essential that we mention our sponsors in all post-trip materials. Incorporate the product mentions into all articles by showing how the product helped us accomplish our objectives.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                   page 16

Video Slide show

A semi-professional camcorder has been acquired for the trip. This device, which records linear time codes, will enable us to have our video tape professionally edited upon our return. We expect to produce a one-hour documentary for distribution to supporting organizations. Do we have any budding film makers among us? Make yourselves known. The film will require us to stage certain events, like the landing and the antenna raising, etc.  This will slow us down a bit, but the benefit will be a more entertaining and informative video. Please bear with the delays and intrusions that will inevitably occur as we try to gather enough video to make a good film and fulfill our commitments to our corporate and foundation sponsors.

We will also be making a slide show. Each operator is encouraged to take a lot of pictures - bring a camera. If possible, use Kodachrome 64 slide film. After the trip, pick out the best shots and send slide copies to W0CP. If you must shoot print film, please have slides made of your best prints. If you don't care to take personal photos, you are invited to take official trip photos with your camera. You will be issued film at no charge (within limits). Turn it in when it is exposed and it will become part of our official photo documentary.


Checklist from Captain Austin

Duffle Bag            Tee Shirts             Canteen

Laundry bag          Sweatshirt             belt (scuba type) Monkey nets*          2-long pants       mosquito net* Towels                   Sun hat                "OFF" repellent Cushion (pillow)        Rain poncho       Sun screen

Shorts                    Aqua socks           Antibiotic spray swimsuit                Swiss Army Knife  Work shoes


Each team member is expected to bring at least $1000 in travelers checks or cash to cover incidental personal expenses and emergency needs.

Recommended Clothing

Bring along light weight pants and long sleeve shirts for wearing while doing outside work on antennas, etc. These will provide protection from the sun. Shorts and short sleeve shirts will be more comfortable for operating wear while in the tents. A wide brim hat is recommended for protecting the face from the intense rays of the sun at the equator. A hat that has come highly recommended is the Tilley T3, $45 (2.5 inch brim) or T2, $55 (3.5 inch brim) in white from Tilley Endurables, ph 800-338-2797 in USA (716- 675-8650 elsewhere). A baseball cap will not protect the neck or ears.

24-DEC-92               KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                    page 17


Foot protection is very important on this trip. You will be jumping into water where there is coral and spiny sea urchins that can cause injuries resulting in infection. You will need to protect the sides and bottoms of your feet with sturdy athletic shoes. The scientists recommend light weight hiking boots for walking around the island. Thongs, etc. are OK for operating, but do not wear them for work or walking about, as they invite injuries. Remember, after we land, we will be spending a lot of time in the water retrieving supplies. Bring extra shoes so you will always have a dry pair.

Canvas, rubber sole shoes will work fine on deck and on the atoll.  High tops would be best in the water, as they provide greater protection. if your shoes have a foam inner cushion, you may want to try and remove this, as it retains water. A river sandal with rubber soles and nylon and velcro straps might be handy, but you will need more protection in the water.


Be sure to have your immunizations up to date. For example, you will need a tetanus booster if you haven't had one in the past ten years. Bring an extra set of any essential items, such as daily medications and eyeglasses, in case of loss or damage to one set. The trip will be physically rigorous, so regular exercise in the weeks before the trip should be considered. A meeting with your personal physician regarding the trip and its demands, including physical and environmental, is recommended. Some of the things to ask about are: salt intake, exercise, effects of heat, seasickness, immunizations, and backup medication.

Sun protection suggestions

Wide brim hat


Sunglasses should have a UV block. Side blinders are recommended to prevent light from coming in from the sides and rear.

Sun screen

On DXpeditions to the tropics, someone usually burns bad enough to blister and take themselves out of the action. Don't let it be you! Bring plenty of sun screen with #15 UV block or higher (don't forget to protect your ears). You will also need sun block for lips and zinc for your nose. It might be a good idea to pay a few visits to a tanning salon in late December and early January, as it will reduce the likelihood of a burn.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                   page 18

A note on hearing protection

The late ham legend, W6AM, once noted that, if he had it to do all over again, he would not use headphones. He felt that his use of headphones for contests and DXing permanently damaged his hearing. While there is no getting around using headphones on this expedition, there is one common sense step we can take. A solid week of l00dB plus sound levels will not help your hearing or your stress level. We encourage you to keep the volume down to the minimum level required for good copy. Also, the generators will be running all week and will make plenty of noise. Bring ear plugs if you want to escape the noise while you sleep. A custom headphone has been designed, one that will keep out most of the ambient noise. This should allow you to keep the volume at a lower level.


Bring a small belt style flashlight and batteries for it. You'll need it at night on the island, and for safety on deck, in case you fall overboard at night. MagLite makes a mini AA model that comes with a black nylon belt pouch.  It's available at Target for $10. Large flashlights, for use on the island, will be supplied. You may also bring your own.

Swimming gear

Don't forget your swim trunks. You may also wish to bring a snorkel mask, as the island is a coral atoll and it may provide a beautiful underwater view. Some of the operators are bringing scuba gear. The boat will provide tanks for those who bring gear.

Equipment and Radios

All necessary equipment and radios will be provided. You are encouraged to bring a two meter radio for island communications. Tools will be provided. The logi-key cw keyers have a chip emulator feature that will mimic the sending characteristics of just about any electronic keyer ever made, so it will not be necessary to bring your own keyer. We will be supplying Bencher paddles. You may bring your own paddle, if you prefer. Headphones, microphones, and footswitches will also be provided.

Things not bring                                                                                                                                                             We will have to take the Alpha's as baggage from Hawaii to Christmas Is., so please travel lightly. Do not bring anything that would be construed as primarily a weapon - it will simply complicate the airport security process (utility knives are OK). Do not bring any illegal or contraband substances. Do not bring any ecological contaminants (see above). Do not bring a hard suitcase; use a canvas bag instead. If you must bring a suitcase, storage in Honolulu will be arranged. Ship any personal items or equipment ahead to the boat agent. If it reaches the boat agent by January 5, it will be shipped by boat to Christmas.

Otherwise, you will either leave it in Hawaii or check it through to Christmas as extra flight baggage.

24-DEC-92             KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                 page 19



Health and Life

Each operator should consider the risks to their person and property that this operation poses, and make individual insurance decisions accordingly. While we believe this expedition to be safe, the remoteness alone increases the risk, should an accident occur. Check with your insurance agent if you have any concerns. Each operator will be required to sign a document releasing KHI/93 (your fellow operators) from any liability arising from this trip. Two of our group are emergency physicians. They will provide medical attention to any injury should the need arise. Please advise them of any and all potential medical problems before departure, so that they can be prepared if a situation does arise.

Personal property

If you are bringing any equipment along, you may want to arrange for your personal insurance policy to cover loss or damage in transit. some policies provide coverage free of charge. Kenwood and Alpha have coverage on their corporate policies, so we are not taking out any additional property insurance. KHI/93 will not be responsible for any losses to personal property.

Passports and Visas

Don't forget your passport! Visas for Kiribati will be arranged in advance. All non-US team members need to be sure to have a multi-entry visa for USA or they may be denied the second entry to the US from Tarawa .

Landing Permit

The Fish and Wildlife Service has issued a use permit for our expedition. This permit is necessary for a landing on Howland. K9AJ and W0RLX are the permitees and, thus, are responsible for ensuring that our activities on the island are conducted according to F&WS policies.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- operator's Manual                   page 20


The personal safety of each team member is of primary concern. Please avoid placing yourself or fellow team members in any situations that might result in injury. our goal is to return from Howland with a perfect safety record. Please do your best to help reach this goal by keeping an eye out for hazards and being cautious.

Travel and Lodging

Inter-island travel and lodging will be arranged by KHI/93.

Personal Purchases

Many of the items taken will be made available for sale upon completion of the trip. A list of available items and prices will be distributed later. If you are interested in purchasing some of the equipment, bring extra money. It would not be fair to the other team members to release equipment on credit, so payment will be expected for any equipment taken by individual team members. All income from such sales will go into the team treasury to be rebated after all bills are paid.


The total out of pocket cost for the trip is roughly $75,000. The operators will share equally in the fund balance at the end of the trip. If the balance is positive, a refund will be issued for the pro-rata share of fund balance. Likewise, if the balance is negative, an additional assessment will be made to each operator for their pro-rata share. It is our intention to balance the budget without additional contributions by the operators.


Here's a little info on our team members:

W0RLX (Burt), age 50; emergency medicine MD; has operated from Kingman Reef, Palmyra & Jarvis Is., XF4DX, HC8X, ZKIXY, and several spots in the Caribbean; operates SSB & CW.

K9AJ (Mike), age 46; emergency medicine MD; has operated from Kingman Reef, Palmyra Is, XF4DX, HC8X, 8Q7AJ, 9NIMM, 4S7AJG; top of CW DXCC honor roll; operates SSB & CW (prefers CW, WARC, & low bands. PacketCluster sysop.

W91XX (Phil), age 53; electrical engineer; president-IPR

Systems (manufacturer of industrial power rectifiers); pres. of local DX club; prefers CW operation.

24-DEC-92              KHI/93 ---- Operator's Manual                 page 21

F6EXV (Paul), age 33; salesman for wine barrel manufacturer; operated from Kingman Reef, Palmyra Is, 708AA, ZAIZXV, FOOEXV, FROEUT/G & others; top of DXCC honor roll, pres. Clipperton DX Club; multi-lingual. Prefers SSB.

G4LLTF (Ian), age 47; Boeing 747-400 captain with British Airways; operated from /3B8, /EA9, /V2A, ZD8LJ, S79LJ, VS6GX, 5Z3DG, and others; worked all current SSB countries; operates SSB & CW. PacketCluster sysop.

PA3DUU (Arie), age 33; manager of production for fruit and nut company; operated from FOOCI (responsible for VHF/Satellite operation), S79WL, LG5LG. Will be VHF/Satellite specialist.

W0CP (Walt), age 44; president of consumer electronics firm; operated from GJ5EGI, C6AEP, V3MS, 3A2BF, /6Y5, /C6A + many contest operations with numerous awards for ARRL & CQ contests; operates CW, SSB, & RTTY. PacketCluster sysop.

K0EU (Randy), age 37; mining engineer; operated from G5EHM, ZLOAEB, VK2CRM, /KH6, /VE7 + contest experience single op, multi-single & multi-multi; operates CW, SSB, RTTY, & satellite.

K4UEE (Bob), age 48; senior vp, marketing, annuities/mutual funds. Operated from XF4DX, /3A, many spots in Caribbean + several world records in CQWW; operates CW & SSB; enjoys low- band DXing.

ON6TT (Peter), age 32; MIS system supervisor; operated from FO0CI; C30EMA; /GU, /GJ, /LX, /C3; experience with multi-single & multi-multi contesting; prefers SSB operation.

I8ULL (Gino), age 32; Manufacturing executive; electrical engineer, extensive multi-multi and multi-single contest experience at I0MGM, IA8A, IB8A, I5MPH, and others. Prefers CW. Was involved in planning to activate Howland in 1984, which never materialized. Holds AHIA callsign.

 Appendix A - World Azimuthal Map

Appendix B - 160 Meter Bands Allocations 1992

Appendix C - Six Meter  Beacons 1992

Appendix D - US Amateur Frequency and Mode Allocations 1992

Appendix E - CT Helper

Appendix F - Soundings

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